Along with the limited edition Vibe X2 Pro, the Chinese tech giant also launched the Lenovo P90 smartphone at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2015 in Las Vegas. It is the first smartphone to utilize the combination of 64-bit Intel AtomTM Z3560 processor with Intel’s 5-mode XMMTM 7262 modem. It runs on the latest Android 5.0 (Lollipop) Operating System.
Lenovo P90 comes with a 5.5 inch Full HD display, 13 megapixel rear camera, 5 megapixel front camera, gesture controls, advanced LTE connectivity and a huge 4000 mAh battery. This handset will be available in Pearl White, Onyx Black and Lava Red colors. The Lenovo P90 will go on sale from next month. The price of this device will be announced soon.
“The Lenovo P90 smartphone is an impressive addition to the growing portfolio of Intel-powered smartphones. As one of the first smartphones powered by Intel’s latest processor coupled with the LTE-Advanced XMM 7260 modem, people will enjoy exceptional speed and 64-bit performance that will provide users with a great mobile experience. We are proud to continue our work with Lenovo on this major milestone.”
– Hermann Eul, Intel’s vice president of Mobile Communications
Lenovo recently launched the new Vibe X2 Pro limited edition smartphone at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2015 in Las Vegas. Lenovo also unveiled a selfie flash accessory and Vibe V10 wearable smartband which is compatible with this smartphone. The Lenovo Vibe X2 Pro packs a 5.3 inch Full HD display and a 64-bit Qualcomm Snapdragon Octa-Core processor, 13 megapixel front and rear camera with LED flash and much more.
The rechargeable selfie flash accessory allows you to take up to 100 selfies in a single charge. It works by using 8 diffused LEDs to supplement available light for natural color tones, ￼even in low light condition. The Vibe V10 wearable smartband features an E Ink display with up to 7-day battery life. The E Ink display on the smartband helps you to view the phone notifications even in sunlight.
The Lenovo Vibe X2 Pro will go on sale from April 2015. The price of this device will be announced before the launch. Vibe V10 Smartband will reach the global markets in April for $89.
“As lifestyles and everyday habits become more and more mobile, consumers today are looking to devices that deliver both performance and long lasting battery life in sleek, stylish designs. These are some of the driving forces behind our new range of mobile devices that offer blazing fast processing speeds, innovative new features and extended battery life to enhance the mobile experience of the most demanding users.”
– Shao Tao, vice president, Mobile business unit, Lenovo
As 2014 winds down, Windows Phone is at a crucial stage in its lifecycle. Again. Earlier in 2014, Microsoft closed the acquisition of Nokia’s hardware division and Windows 10 was launched in a Technical Preview form. Nokia’s acquisition, combined with the upcoming Windows 10-based version of the phone operating system, has perhaps resulted in a slight pause in release of true flagship devices that can compete with the latest versions of competing platforms, the iPhone and Android/Nexus lineup.
So, as we look forward to the early 2014 look at the combined Windows RT and Windows Phone OS based on Windows 10, what can Microsoft do to preserve and grow its share, both market share as well as mind share? Recently, some prominent writers have written in detail about why they are no longer using Windows Phone as their primary device. Key takeaways there were lack of proper support of the platform by the largest mobile network in the US, Verizon Wireless, as well as lack of key apps on the platform. Apps that include the likes of Slack, Trello, Snapchat, Tinder, etc.
I have my own reasons why I switched to using iPhone 5s as my primary device last year. I know Windows Phone 8.1 added Notification Center but many of the problems are still valid issues for those who care about top-end Windows Phone experience. For example, adding Action Center to store all notifications is a great start, but in order to take action on those notifications, you have to tap it which opens the app, and then you take action within the app. Android, and now even iOS to a certain extent, have actionable notifications and those need to be implemented on Windows Phone.
The broader issue with Windows Phone is that for the third year in a row, enthusiasts are made to wait for “the next version” for feature parity with iOS and Android. Meanwhile those two platforms, due to the incredible ecosystem which creates a great virtuous cycle, have implemented next-generation features that move the goal posts for Windows Phone. Also, this wait for the next version of Windows Phone only takes care of part of the problem plaguing the platform; app developers are still not flocking to the platform because in the US, where most of the innovative apps have been created in the recent past, Windows Phone is still languishing around the 3% market share. Forget Windows Phone, even choosing Android as the second platform to be supported by small developers, is hard (although that Android situation is changing slowly).
Here are some things to look forward to as yet another chapter opens for Windows phone (yes, the “p” is lower case, because rumors suggest that Windows Phone operating system will be merged with Windows RT and just called Windows 10):
There’s a lot of hope for Windows 10’s ARM-based OS version, the merger of Windows RT and Windows Phone. How will apps built for Windows Phone work on Windows 10? What about additional features in the OS which will create an unforeseen appetite both on the consumer side as well as on the developer side? Cortana has rightly won accolades for how well she works, but it has not moved the needle much for device sales. Granted, it is not fully launched yet, but still. Also, what else can Windows 10 do that iOS and Android don’t do, and more importantly, can Microsoft find something that Windows 10 can do which iOS and Android *won’t* be able to do?
One of the issues I had with Windows Phone when I got my iPhone 5s was the increased (and justifiable) focus by Microsoft on the lower end. They see their best market potential in markets which haven’t achieved smartphone saturation yet. In those markets, Microsoft has been able to sell their entry-level devices quite well. So Microsoft making “affordable flagship” a term for mid-range devices with some high-end specifications is completely understandable.
However, many customers in the developed markets would love to get a true high-end phone that competes well with the flagship iPhone and Android devices. The Lumia 1020, for example, has no successor yet. Yes, the Lumia 1520 is a great phone but there needs to be a non-phablet version of that device to make it appealing to the larger customer base.
Yes, Microsoft did create a bypass of sorts by making it possible for any “developer” to get direct updates of the software from Microsoft. Pretty much anyone can sign up to be a “developer” by signing into App Studio online, thereby making sure any enthusiast who cares about latest OS versions, will get it directly from Microsoft. That has helped reduce the angst among the enthusiasts but it is only one part of the updates customers need; firmware that makes devices work better, is delivered by the OEMs and via the carriers. Carriers have no real urgency to complete (or in some cases, even start!) testing and delivering the firmware to Windows Phone devices.
Could Microsoft come up with a way to deliver even more firmware directly? I mean, Windows on PCs get all updates delivered directly, and if Windows 10’s mobile version is going to be like “big Windows”, then I am optimistic that most of the updates could be delivered directly by Microsoft. Having said that, could Microsoft find a way, Windows 10 or otherwise, to deliver it without the need for the device to be a developer device?
This is a really tough nut for Microsoft to crack. Much of the mind share these days is delivery via the Microsoft-averse tech blogosphere which has settled down on Apple and Google as being the only two players worth caring about. In order to win them over, Microsoft has to climb a virtually impossible mountain but as we have seen in the enterprise/cloud space, it is not impossible. A few crucial strategic moves on the Azure/Visual Studio side have made Microsoft somewhat of a darling in the same tech press, and Microsoft has to find a similar set of moves to make on the consumer side in order to increase their mind share. I say this because even Windows Phone 8.1 is an excellent operating system and there is a lot to love there, but if the writers who write at prominent tech blogs don’t care to use it, and worse, dismiss it, it does not help. I am not sure what those strategic moves could be, but Microsoft does need to make those moves so that the tech press actually cares about writing about Windows devices.
I am optimistic about Windows 10. I like the fact that there will be one OS for phones and tablets and I look forward to seeing some of the well-established Windows Phone apps get upgraded to be Universal and work on small tablets as well. But most importantly, I want to see how Microsoft expands Windows 10 to work as one OS across phones, tablets and PCs. There are many interesting applications of having one OS work across devices of all form factors and I am curious to see how today’s excellent phone applications work on my Windows tablets. On the phone side, I am looking forward to some nice high-end devices and some marquee apps releasing their Universal versions soon.
Here’s looking forward to another exciting year for Microsoft and Windows!
One Plus has finally launched its popular One Plus One smartphone in India. This handset is exclusively available on Amazon for those who has received an invite. One Plus One packs a 5.5-inch Full HD display, 2.5 GHz quad-core Snapdragon 801 processor, 13 megapixel rear camera, 4G LTE Connectivity and more. It runs on the Android 4.4 (KitKat) based CyanogenMod 11S.
Similar to its global invite system, Indian user will need an India-specific invite to purchase this device. To get an invite, you will need to participate in the contests and promotional events hosted on the company’s forums or social media channels as well as by Amazon.in. You can also ask someone who has bought a OnePlus phone for an invite. To learn more, head over to this page. One Plus One comes with a price-tag of INR 21,999.
Intex Technologies recently launched yet another Android powered smartphone in the Indian market. The Intex Aqua Power features a 5 inch IPS display, 1.4 GHz octa-core processor, 8 megapixel rear camera, 1 GB RAM and much more. Apart from that, this handset packs a beefy 4000 mAh battery that gives you 18 hours of talk time while using 3G and 30 hours of talk time on 2G.
Intex Aqua Power comes with a price-tag of INR 8,444. This handset is available in White, Black, Blue and Grey colors. Intex hads pre-loaded the Hungama app on this device, which allows you to access 30 days of unlimited audio and video from its vast catalog library. Check out the complete specs below.
“At Intex, it is our effort to constantly understand and deliver on customer expectations and we feel that the Aqua Power with its extensive battery life and powerful Octa-Core processor will cater to our consumers’ needs in a far more effective manner. We hope to address these concerns with this smartphone that will guarantee long hours of talk time along with a smooth and fast interface. We look forward to our users experiencing a state of the art smartphone.”
– Sanjay Kumar Kalirona, Mobile Business Head, Intex Technologies
Intex Power Aqua Specifications:
5 inch full laminated IPS display
854 x 480 pixels resolution
1.4 GHz Octa-Core processor
Android 4.4.2 Kitkat OS (Upgradable to Android 5.0)
It sure looks like Microsoft is very close to announcing and releasing their fitness band, simply called Microsoft Band. Their smartphone and Mac apps are available in respective stores ahead of a formal announcement.
The band will apparently track heart rate, steps, calories burned and sleep. The band will also work with your smartphone and show notifications, and in the case of Windows Phone, integrate with Cortana. Among the type of notifications that the Band will be able to show are email messages, calendar reminders, phone calls received, text messages social updates like those from Twitter and Facebook, weather and finance. The band will use the smartphone’s location services to determine your location, in order to show the weather, for example.
Notifications and other settings will be configured via the Microsoft Health app which is now available on all platforms.
It is unclear if the following tweet from Microsoft Store has any connection to the Microsoft Band, but it is quite a coincidence, if not:
Get fit before the holidays at your local Microsoft store. Join us 10/30 for fitness activities, giveaways, & more: http://t.co/BJZZ5KDsFs
I don’t know about you, but I am more excited about the cloud-powered service Microsoft Health, than the band itself. As a cross-platform consumer, I would love to have something that works across all my devices, and it looks like Microsoft may have the answer.
Some screenshots from the various apps follow below:
Google launched the Android 5.0 (Lollypop) powered Nexus 6 yesterday. The new Google flagship is manufactured by Motorola and boasts of top of the line specs. Yet, for more than one reason, it’s not quite the device I was expecting from Google. In fact, it’s the most anti-Nexus device yet from Google.
The Nexus line started with the Nexus One released in Jan 2010. Google hoped to revolutionize the US smartphone market with the One. Its ambitious goal of ditching carrier lock-ins and getting people to buy phones online at full price didn’t find many takers. Nexus One was a commercial flop. The price tag of $529 dissuaded most buyers. However, it was well received by Android enthusiasts and critics. Google scaled back its ambition and partnered with carriers for the following devices. The Nexus S and the Galaxy Nexus by Samsung fared better. However, the first major success in the Nexus line-up was Nexus 4. With Nexus 4 Google managed to deliver flagship quality hardware in a mid-range price bucket. Nexus 5 kept up the same tradition and delivered a comfortable and beautifully designed phone with great hardware at just $349 (16 GB). However, the Nexus 6 marks a stark departure from the LG Nexus phones.
To begin with, the Nexus 6 has a six inch display. This firmly puts it in the phablet category, and it’s technically incorrect to even call it a phone. In fact, it’s about half a centimetre taller and wider than the Galaxy Note 4. Have a look at the comparison below. The Nexus 6 is appreciably taller and wider than all the devices in the list, and two of the devices in the comparison are phablets, and the other two are phones that are already too big to be comfortable. It’s worth noting that in response to the user feedback, One Plus is considering reducing the size of its next flagship. Forget about single handed operation, the Nexus 6 might even be too wide to grip comfortably while talking.
The next major issue that I have with the Nexus 6 is the price. At $649, it’s almost twice as expensive as the previous Nexus devices. I wouldn’t call it overpriced – not when Apple is charging upwards of $749 for the iPhone 6 Plus. The Nexus 6 boasts of top of the line specs including a 2K display and Snapdragon 805. However, the question that needs to be asked is do we really need the 2K display? I haven’t used the Note 4 or the new Nexus, but I did review the LG G3. While the increased resolution was noticeable, its impact was limited. You won’t feel the difference during most of your day to day activities.
For the Nexus 4 and the Nexus 5, Google took flagship devices from LG, found areas of compromise (like the display size and camera), and produced a top performing device with enough restraint to be affordable. For the Nexus 6, Google took Motorola’s sensibly priced Moto X (2nd gen), and amped up the specs to give us a Nexus that beats every other device in the market in terms of specs, but quite possibly not in terms of the overall experience. May be Google has decided that Android is now popular enough that it doesn’t need to sell low-margin devices. May be it wants to make Android smartphones an object of desire like the iPhone. Or maybe, Google feels that current gen smartphones are mature enough to have a two year shelf life. It has not discontinued the Nexus 5. Future Nexus phones might alternate between a smartphone and a phablet. Whatever be the case, Nexus 6 isn’t the smartphone that I want or need.
Along with the Nexus 6 smartphone, Google has also launched the Nexus 9 tablet. This device is manufactured by HTC and it packs an 8.9 inch display, 64-bit NVIDIA Tegra K1 processor, 8 megapixel rear camera and so on. It runs on the latest Android 5.0 (Lollipop) Operating System. This device will be available in 16 GB and 32 GB variant. The dual front-facing speaker on this tablet is powered by the HTC’s Boomsound technology.
The Google Nexus 9 tablet will be up for pre-order from October 17th, however the device will go on sale from November 3rd. It comes with a price-tag of $400 for the 16GB model, $480 for 32GB model and $600 for 32 GB with LTE model. Apart from Play Store, you can also buy this tablet from Amazon, Best Buy, Gamestop, Office Depot, Office Max, Radio Shack, Staples and Walmart.
Nexus 9 will be available in black, white and sand colors. Nexus 9 users can additionally buy the Keyboard Folio which attaches to the device with magnets, pairs by NFC and supports two typing angles.
Google Nexus 9 Specifications:
8.9 inch IPS display
2048 x 1536 pixels resolution
Android 5.0 (Lollipop) OS
2.3 GHz NVIDIA Tegra K1 – 64 bit processor
Kepler 192-core GPU
8 megapixel rear camera with auto-focus and LED flash
Last month, Samsung unveiled the much awaited Galaxy Note 4 phablet at the IFA 2014 event in Berlin. This device comes with an upgraded 5.7 inch Quad HD display and a 3.7 megapixel front-facing camera for selfie lovers with 90 degree shooting angle and up to 120 degree wide angle. Today, Samsung finally launched this phablet in India.
Samsung Galaxy Note 4 comes with a price-tag of INR 58,300. This device will go on sale in India from October 17. It also includes support for 14 Indian languages including Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Marathi and so on. Vodafone subscribers will get 1 GB of free 3G data for 2 months with this device.
“The launch of Galaxy Note 4 highlights Samsung’s commitment to deliver iconic and differentiated products. The new device exhibits people inspired innovation with its unique combination of an enhanced S Pen, large and vivid display and superior productivity features to provide the most refined Galaxy experience to our customers. Samsung has significantly contributed to the wearable industry by taking the lead in offering unique smart wearable’s and the launch of Gear S will further set a new standard in the mobile communication space.”
Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation, better known by its abbreviation IRCTC, has finally launched its official Android app. The Android app launch comes over an year after the launch of a Windows 8 and Windows Phone app. IRCTC is one of the largest e-commerce vendors in the country with close to 5 million tickets sold every day. However, it has never been very quick or good at adapting to newer technologies. The Android app was long overdue, considering that India is a country where a significant chunk of the internet users access the web solely through mobile phones.
I had limited expectations from the app, considering that government websites are notorious for having ugly and convoluted user interfaces. However, I was pleasantly surprised by the app. It takes a few seconds to get started, and doesn’t support any social login. Once you sign-in, you are presented with the ‘New Booking’ page. Selecting source and destination stations is a breeze thanks to the autocomplete feature. The app presents all available trains in a neat grid and allows you to quickly view seat availability and proceed with the booking. The app offers notification of upcoming journeys, and allows you to view and cancel past bookings. The overall user interface is quite decent. The biggest eyesore is the banner ad that’s displayed at the bottom of the screen. Does a ticketing app of a subsidiary of the Indian government really need to display Google Ads?
A major issue with IRCTC Connect is that it doesn’t sync with the IRCTC website. Tickets that you have booked in the past through the web interface are not accessible through the app. This is a major issue, and will hopefully be addressed in future versions. Another drawback of the app is that it can’t be used during the peak hours (8:00 AM to 12:00 PM). In other words, even though the app supports Tatkal booking, IRCTC has imposed an artificial restriction to make it practically useless for Tatkal tickets.
After Microsoft and Sony, the South Korean tech giant finally launched its very own selfie focused smartphone in India. The Samsung Galaxy Grand Prime features a 5 megapixel wide angle front camera best-suited for capturing group selfies. Apart from that, it runs on the Android 4.4 (KitKat) Operating System and packs a 5 inch display, 1.2 GHz quad core processor and an 8 megapixel rear camera.
Samsung Galaxy Grand Prime comes with a price tag of INR 15,499 in India. This handset is currently available in White and Grey colors. It measures 144.8 × 72.1 × 8.6mm and weighs 156 grams. This device will compete with the recently launched 2nd Generation Moto G and the upcoming Lumia 730 in India. Check out the complete specs below.
“Galaxy Grand Prime opens a whole new world of premium mobile experience for consumers looking at uninterrupted entertainment and multitasking on-the-go. Introducing the new trend of ‘Groupfie’, Galaxy Grand Prime features an advanced wide angle front camera best-suited to capture group images. With the launch of this power packed smartphone, we are further strengthening our Grand portfolio.”
– Asim Warsi, Vice President, Marketing, Mobile and IT, Samsung India
Samsung Galaxy Grand Prime Specifications:
5 inch qHD display
960 x 540 pixels resolution
1.2 GHz Snapdragon 400 quad-core processor
Android 4.4 (KitKat) Operating System
8 megapixel rear camera with auto-focus and LED Flash
One Plus has managed to generate a lot of publicity and interest for a brand new company. Their first device – the One Plus One, was dubbed as the “Flagship Killer”. Extremely limited availability has prevented the device from registering even a blip in the world wide sales figures. However, the One did receive widespread acclaim for its high quality hardware and extremely competitive pricing. Today Carl Pei and David S from One Plus One answered questions from Redditors in an AMA. Here are some of the most interesting tidbits from their AMA.
On India Plans
One Plus had earlier indicated that it’s interested in following Xiaomi’s footprints and selling its devices in India. Although, Carl didn’t provide firm dates, he did promise to “have more concrete plans” in a few weeks. “We are aiming at doing so (launching in India) before the end of this year”, confirmed David.
On Android L
One Plus and Cyanogen intends to begin working on Android L as soon as the source code is available. “Earlier, we promised to have it done within 90 days of receiving the source”, noted Carl.
On One Plus One Successor
One Plus Two is expected to be released in the second or the third quarter of next year. The One Plus One is a really big smartphone that’s almost impossible to use with just one hand. In fact, that’s my single biggest gripe regarding the hardware. The good news is that a smaller device might be in the works. “We’ve seen a lot of people asking for a smaller device, and want to let everyone know that we hear you”, wrote Carl Pei. “We’re thinking about it.”
On Other Feature and Product Requests
Responding to a request from an user to include wireless charging, Carl ruled out including it in the immediate future. “I’m not impressed by today’s wireless charging technology. Its slow speeds lead to a subpar user experience, especially considering the huge capacity of our battery.”
One Plus will also not be making tablets anytime soon. “The Nexus tablets are pretty good. We don’t think we can make anything significantly better in the near future”.
One Plus has been teasing a big reveal this Friday. Many had speculated that they might be finally gearing up to ditch the invite system. However, David confirmed that One Plus will not be taking pre-orders anytime soon.
Everyone has something to hide. With smartphones becoming deeply integrated with each and every facet of our life, it’s only but natural that they’d contain sensitive data. And, as the recent iCloud breaches have shown us, some times it’s better to have private stuff on your device and within your control, instead of cloud storages that can be hacked remotely.
Andrognito is an Android app that can hide and secure any file on your Android smartphone. The developer — Aritra Roy from Kolkata, India – named the app as a fusion of the words Android and Incognito. The app applies a 3 step process to hide and lock your files –
i) It randomly assigns a new name to the file and appends a period (‘.’) to the beginning of the file name to prevent it from being indexed by Android media library.
ii) It places the file in a wrapper called ADG container, and encrypts it using AES-256.
iii) It applies a strong password to the container, and renames it once again.
The algorithm used by Andrognito is device specific, so simply copying the Andrognito container (.adg) to a different device won’t work. However, on the same device, Andrognito encrypted files can persist through factory resets and rom changes. The only catch is that you shouldn’t delete the ADG files and the “Andrognito/Backups” folder.
Andrognito is pretty straight forward to use. You are presented with a brief tutorial slide when you launch the app for the first time. After that you are presented with the File Explorer, which allows you to select files that you want to hide. Applying AES encryption makes the file almost impossible be crack. However, it can take a fair amount of time. Hence, Andrognito also has a Flash mode, which skips the encryption, and simple repackages your content to hide it from your file manager. However, files in this mode may be viewable in other apps. Files hidden by Andrognito can be accessed from the ‘Files’ tab in the app. If you end up hiding a lot of stuff, you will find ability to filter based on file-type and add to Favourites certain files handy. Andrognito app itself is protected by a 4-digit pin.
The app has a couple of other tricks in its sleeve. The first of them is a fake Vault. You can set a dummy pin, which when entered will open a fake vault (with 0 files). This can obviously be handy if you have a particularly nosy significant other or parents. The other neat feature is to hide Andrognito itself. If you turn on the Invisible mode, the app will be removed from the app drawer. You will be able to launch it only by dialling your pin from the phone dialler. The app also prevents brute force attacks by automatically locking itself for 15 minutes after 3 failed attempts.
Andrognito is currently in beta, but worked without a hitch for me. Go ahead, and take it for a spin. There are other similar apps, but Andrognito strikes a nice balance between simplicity and security, and is completely free.
Last month, Samsung unveiled the Galaxy Alpha smartphone with an iPhone-like design and a metal frame. Today, Samsung finally launched this Android 4.4 powered smartphone in India. Samsung Galaxy Alpha is the slimmest Galaxy device and it is compatible with the Samsung Gear Fit, Gear Live and Gear 2 wearables.
Samsung Galaxy Alpha come with a price tag of INR 39,990 in India. This device will go on sale in the first week of October. Galaxy Alpha will be available in White, Black and Gold colours. Airtel subscribers will get 5 GB of free data for two months in 4G circles and 2 GB of free data for two month in 3G circles.
“The Galaxy Alpha was built and designed based on the specific desires of the consumers. With an entirely new appearance, the Galaxy Alpha focuses on both beauty and functionality combining a stunning metal frame and slim, light weight design with the same powerful hardware and features users expect from a flagship Galaxy mobile device.”
Along with the HTC Desire 820 and Desire 820q, the Taiwanese smartphone manufacturer also launched the Desire 816G in the Indian market. It is basically the cheaper version of the previously launched HTC Desire 816. This handset packs a 1.3 GHz MediaTek quad-core processor instead of the 1.6 GHz Snapdragon 400 quad-core processor found in the Desire 816.
Apart from that, both the smartphones share similar specifications and design. HTC Desire 816G comes with a price tag of INR 18,990. This handset measures 156.6 x78.74 x 7.99 mm and weighs 158 grams. HTC Desire 816G is available in Black, White, Red, Green and Purple color.
The HTC Desire 816G dual sim brings an exciting combination of big screen, great specs at an amazing price! It is one of the most well-built and best design smartphone with a powerful specification that makes the HTC Desire 816G dual sim even more compelling. It is bringing genuine choice to the category by delivering stunning design and high-end performance at unbelievable value.
– Faisal Siddiqui, Vice President & Country Head, India, HTC