Tag Archives: CMS

New Physics Should Be Around The Corner, Says Rolf Heuer, Director of CERN; Charts Future After LHC

It was just yesterday, yet we have come so far! The first proton beams at a respectable 7 TeV energy was started only on 30th March, 2010. It has been hardly a year and a half and so much has already been achieved. This was the basic message sent out by CERN speakers Frederick Bordry and Rolf Heuer, also the Director of CERN at the Lepton Photon Conference, 2011, being held at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India.

Projects! Projects!

There are a lot of projects on the horizon, both short time and long time. Obviously, the long term projects are ambitious and a bit ambiguous as of now. However, as Heuer said, they are practical. We should not be afraid that it is not easy, he said.

Rolf Heuer, Director General of CERN, speaking at the Lepton Photon Conference, 2011, at TIFR, Mumbai

Among the many new developments happening or proposed at LHC is the development of magnets that can generate extremely high magnetic fields, called high-field magnets. These will be required to increase the energy of a beam, without lengthening the collider tunnel. Prof. Michael Peskin of SLAC, who was in the audience, asked if this is a dream or a programamidst chuckles, to which Bordry replied that it was certainly a realistic program.

The CMS detector at LHC

The LHC is expected to have a long shutdown period from 2013 to mid 2014 for repairs and maintenance work.

New physics and monster accelerators

A number of new projects are upcoming, even though they haven’t been officially sanctioned. Yesterday’ it was the synergy of the Tevatron, HERA and SLAC that led to the discovery of the Standard Model, said Heuer, adding that the LHC results will guide the way at the energy frontier.

About the Higgs search, Heuer said that while finding the Higgs will be a discovery, not finding the Higgs and ruling it out will also be a major discovery. People should not say that these scientists are searching for nothing, he quipped. Not finding the Higgs will be a major result, since it will completely destroy the Standard Model, allowing other models of physics to come into the limelight.

Among a plethora of futuristic plans announced, the most spectacular was the announcement of a hadron-lepton collider the LHeC. The LHC is a hadron-hadron collider. It can collide protons together or lead/silver nuclei etc. A hadron-lepton collider will be able to collide a proton, and say an electron. The energy per beam of the LHeC will be 16.5 TeV, combining to give a massive 33 TeV in total. The LHeC design is on my desk right now, but I shouldn’t be mentioning that here, he remarked drawing loud laughter from the global audience. As far as LHC physics is concerned, he said that 2012 will be a decisive year. The TeV results will either lead to the discovery of new particles and some new physics will be known or it will be a reformulation of the physics we already know. Both will be progressive steps for particle physics.

Heuer spoke at length on the building of the linear accelerators International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC). Today, we need to keep our choices openwas Heuer’s advice.

International Collaboration

On the question of collaboration, Heuer said that CERN was throwing its doors open to non-European countries. The E’ in CERN is going from European’ to Everybody’. We’re not changing our name, however, said Heuer.

Exciting times in particle physics beckon us! As usual this sentiment was put emphatically in Heuer’s own words -We are just beginning to explore 95% of the universe.

I’ll let the scientist in Heuer have the final word on this report. When asked if he’ll be bothered if the next big accelerator is located in the US, instead of at CERN, Heuer put it beautifully, I don’t care where the collider is! I only care about the science coming out of it.

The scientific enterprise is a greater binding factor than anything else. It’s a silent messenger of world peace, uniting the world in the pursuit of truth and never advertising that facet.

Latest Results of Higgs Search Presented Jointly By ATLAS and CMS, LHC, CERN at Lepton Photon ’11, Mumbai

The latest results on the Higgs search are out. Results were presented separately by ATLAS and CMS detectors of LHC, CERN today(i.e. 22st August, 2011) at the Lepton-Photon Conference, 2011. In this semi-technical article, we present the most important results in a systematic form. The verdict is, however, out the Higgs hasn’t been found as yet.

Check out our first (non-technical) post on this discovery here. A countdown to the Lepton Photon Conference itself is here.

Higgs Production and Decay channels

There are a few things that should be kept in mind right throughout the article. The Higgs boson is primarily produced by interaction of two gluons. (A gluon is what keeps protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus together.) This is called gluon-gluon production of the Higgs boson.

Next, the Higgs, being highly massive (i.e. having a high mass) decays into lighter particles. This is what massive particles always do they decay into lighter particles. The only thing is that different particles decay at different rates. Heavier particles will decay much faster than comparatively lighter particles.

Higgs event

The Higgs can decay into a number of lighter products. Each of these products leaves a distinctive signature on the detectors and the different modes of decay are called different decay channels’. The Higgs primarily has a gamma-gamma (Higgs decaying into two gamma ray photons.) channel, a WW and a ZZ channel. These are the main channels of interest. The gamma-gamma channel will be the preferred channel if the Higgs is a comparatively light particle about 100 GeV in mass. If the Higgs decays by producing two Z-bosons (the ZZ channel) or two W-bosons (WW channel) then its mass is above 130 GeV.   In other words, the gamma-gamma channel fixes the upper limit of the Higgs mass at 130 GeV, while the WW and ZZ channels fix the lower energy bound at 130 GeV.

Now, here is the interesting part. The WW or ZZ bosons are themselves quite heavy and decay into a number of products. These decay channels produce characteristic detection patterns in the detectors. Comparing the observed rate of decay into these channels with that of the expected value, the data is reconstructed to see if this indeed was a Higgs event.

Now for more technical details

ATLAS Results

The ATLAS detector found no significant excess in the gamma-gamma channel. The bottom-bottombar (b-bbar) channel (this is what the WW bosons break down into bottom and anti-bottom quarks) gave big excess of Higgs event above the theoretically expected Standard Model(SM) production rates. Even though the excess was nearly 10 times the SM predictions, the sensitivity needs to be improved. Furthermore, Tevatron has a much greater say in the b-bbar channel than the LHC, given that it has recorded much higher number of events and has a higher luminosity at that energy range. The tau-tau (tau is a lepton, an electron like particle) channel gave a 4 to 5 times excess.

The ATLAS detector at LHC, CERN

Overall, there was no significant excess in any of the channels to warrant a discovery. There was no significant excess number of events noticed for the Higgs in the mass range of 110 GeV to 160 GeV. This mass range is tentatively excluded with 95% confidence level. However, at 99% confidence level, there is a window about 142 GeV, which can be a possible detection window. Further experiments will probe this window more thoroughly.

CMS results

CMS detected no excess in the gamma-gamma channel. A slight excess was noticed in the tau-tau channel and this is expected to be an important channel for further investigation, owing to the fact that data reconstruction from this channel points to a Higgs mass of about 140 GeV.

Excess of events in the WW going to lepton-lepton channel suggests a mass range of 130 GeV to 200 GeV. Three pairs of events have been notices at three mass ranges 122, 142 and 165 GeV for the ZZ channel. Only the 142 GeV event is consistent with Standard Model predictions. Happily, this is the very window that wasn’t excluded earlier with 99% confidence level.

Out of theoretically expected mass range exclusion of 145 to 440 GeV, three ranges have been excluded 145 to 216 GeV, 226 to 288 GeV and 310 to 400 GeV. Anything above 400 GeV is unlikely and the crucial 130 to 145 GeV window is still open. These mass ranges have been excluded with 98% confidence level.

Higgs search continues with full force. LHC will provide a lot more data samples in the coming months and this might ultimately lead us to achieve the Holy Grail of Particle Physics.

Higgs Boson Still Not Found: Huge Official Announcement from LHC, CERN

HIGGS SEARCH RETURNS A BLANK! HIGGS BOSON NOT FOUND BY LHC, CERN!

This is the joint announcement made by the ATLAS and CMS teams, LHC, CERN at the Lepton-Photon Conference, 2011 being held at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India. This is likely to be a disappointment for many around the world, both within and without the particle physics community. The search is however on!

A warmup countdown post to this Lepton Photon Conference, 2011 is here. Semi-technical post showing all relevant results and figures can be found here.

The Higgs Boson

The Higgs Boson, predicted from considerations of symmetry in Quantum Field Theory by Peter Higgs, is the particle theoretically responsible for endowing every other massive particle with mass. It’s a boson with spin zero, with positive parity and charge.

Weak Signals

There were a number of weak signals noticed that preceded the event. These Higgs signatures’ included the W-W or the Z-Z decay channel for the Higgs as the primary decay channel. This means that the Higgs once produced will decay into two W or Z-bosons, which will in turn break up into electron-positron pairs or muon-antimuon pairs. Unfortunately, none of these events could stand up to the rigors of analysis and survive till the 5 sigma confidence level was reached in both ATLAS and CMS detectors, as yet.

No such significant excess has been observed in the lower mass gamma-gamma channel. Also, more exotic branches like the tau-tau and b-bbar (bottom-bottombar quarks) have not offered anything promising.

The results of Tevatron, Fermilab are similarly blank, with no significant excess noticed in any channel.

The Future

This is also an exciting opportunity it opens up new possible physical theories. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, at least what we know of it now, may not be the whole story. There are many rival’ theories of the Standard Model, many requiring no Higgs boson to achieve mass. These Higgless models may become the focus of mainstream research and the LHC may be next used to test the predictions of such theories.

However, it is too early to make such claims. The Higgs search is going on at full blast.

And a Promise

We will bring more articles soon, explaining what this means for the Standard Model and particle physics in general. We will also run an article elucidating the jargon of particle physics. Hold on for that it’ll come sooner that you think.

Update

Actual results from the ATLAS and CMS joint announcement on the Higgs Boson search can be found here. All relevant facts and figures present.

Countdown to Lepton-Photon Conference, 2011: ATLAS To Make Major Announcement on Higgs Search

Some big news is just around the corner. The ATLAS collaboration at LHC, CERN is all set to announce the status of the Higgs Boson search at the giant collider in the upcoming week at the Lepton-Photon Conference 2011, being held in Mumbai from 22-27 August, 2011. The announcement is one of particular importance since it is rumored to be the definitive one in the quest for the Higgs Boson. Whether the Standard Model of Physics, one of the most beautiful and successful edifices of physics ever constructed, will stand or need revision will hinge crucially on this one announcement.

The Lepton Photon 2011 Logo

The Lepton-Photon Conference, 2011

The Conference The XXV International Symposium on Lepton-Photon Interactions at High Energy will take place in Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India and will attract prominent personalities from the world of high-energy physics. The coming week is expected to be a hectic one for both students and physicists at the Institute, with the who’s who of particle physics presenting and discussing current progress, while also charting the road ahead. Preparations are on at full swing within the Institute premises.

We at Techie-Buzz will be covering the huge scientific event from Ground Zero and presenting all the major announcements in real time from it.  You might want to bookmark the website and visit it frequently or subscribe to our newsletter, if you aren’t already on the subscription list.

Some exciting developments precede the event

The watch-word is Higgs’ for everyone and with certain encouraging signs noticed in the last few months, everyone is excited. Particularly stunning are the two results graphed below. Explanations follow the graphs.

The CMS (above) and ATLAS (below) Results for Higgs event, July, 2011

Look at the two graphs (don’t get scared!). The thick black line in each graph represents the Higgs signals. The dashed line represents the predicted Higgs production rate by Standard Model Calculations. A proper signature is said to be found when the observed signal overtakes the predicted signal. Look at the region marked, just between 130 to 150 MeV, where the production rate far exceeds the predicted rate. This coincides with the predicted mass range for the Higgs. This in itself proves nothing, as this might be due to something completely different. What is exciting is the fact that this weaksignal is being noticed in both the LHC detectors, ALICE and CMS. Concurrent results have a better chance of surviving thorough data analysis.

For clarity let me reiterate the two important takeaway points: First, both detectors, ATLAS and CMS, agree on the Higgs signature. Second, the signals have been noticed in the theoretically expected mass range (about 130-150 GeV).

The results are now quoted at a 95% confidence level (or 2 sigma) and do not warrant the label of a discovery’. For that, you’ll require 99.997% confidence (or 5 sigma) from both detectors. We might be onto that.

At the risk of being repetitive, let me again emphasize that the announcement at the Conference in the coming week will nearly finalise the fate of the search for the Higgs Boson. If not found, it may be the beginning of new physics.

Hope to see you here through next week.

Update: The CERN Announcement on the ATLAS and CMS results on the Higgs Search is here. Check it out, its big news.

WordPress Wins Hall of Fame CMS Award

WordPress is a really good platform and has made blogging easier for millions of people including us. It has won several accolades in the past, but this year they went one step ahead by winning the Hall of Fame CMS Award at the Open Source Awards 2010.

Open Source Awards 2010

The hall of Fame CMS award is awarded to a CMS which has won the Open Source CMS award at least once, and WordPress was a winner last year. The first runner up for the Hall of Fame CMS awards was Drupal, followed by Joomla.

This year, CMS Made Simple won the open source CMS award and was followed by SilverStripe and MODx. Here is wishing WordPress and all the other winners a hearty congratulations. Open Source and blogging would not have been the same without you folks.

Kentico: ASP.NET CMS Platform

Gone are those days, when you would manually create pages for your website, upload them in your web server and place hyperlinks here and there and then show your website to the rest of the world. If you are serious about your website, you must use a content management system to manage the pages, work flow and other aspects of your site.

A Content management system (CMS) lets you manage your website in a collaborative environment. There can be multiple users associated with your CMS and each one of them can create or update pages for your site. Furthermore, you can assign specific roles to specific users of your site so that they can carry out different operations on their own.

Kentico CMS is a brilliant content management system for anyone who need a website on the ASP.net platform. Kentico comes with an easy to use interface – you can build blogs, online stores, forums, websites for small business and much more. They also have an API which allows you to integrate your site with 3rd party software and other applications.

Without much ado, let’s see what Kentico has to offer:

Main Features of Kentico CMS

Easy to use editing with WYSIWYG editor

When you login to the backend of your website, you are shown a complete website tree in the left hand while a WYSIWYG editor on the right, as shown below:

Kentico WYSIWYG Editor

From the left panel, select the page which you want to edit and it opens in the right panel for editing. You can then add textual content, images, links, videos etc in your page and save the document. Once saved, the changes can be previewed before publishing.

The content editors of your site do not need special training or knowledge of HTML for managing the pages of your site. The editors can work as if they are using a word editor. The WYSWYIG editor is capable of basic and advanced formatting, inserting images or flash movies and linking to internal as well as external pages on the web.

Custom document types and fields, content/design separation

With Kentico CMS, you can create structured documents so that they can be reused on other parts of your website. Should you invoke a newer design, these structured documents can be reused or incorporated on other websites or designs quite seamlessly.

For example: You can create a new document type as "phones" and then include the different parameters such as model number, price, memory, company name etc.

Kentico Custom Document Types

Now the editors or authors of your site can fill in the form and the page can be displayed anywhere in your site. There is nothing easier than this – you don’t have to know what codes are required to bring a particular module.

SEO Friendly Website with Widgets, Blogs, Message Boards and Forums

Kentico CMS is very SEO friendly and you can use tags and categories to organize your content and the different pages of your website. The URL structure of your site adheres to the latest SEO standards and you can create widgets to show dynamic content.

This can mean newsletters, forms, an array of latest news or may be a subscription box.

SEO Friendly Websites

You can create new pages simply by using the custom layout and the widget sections and don’t have to wait for the developer to create a new page template. You can place the widgets in active widget zones defined by the developer. These widgets can be completely customized – you decide which widgets are available for particular user roles and so on.

Rapid development of your website

Basically, there are two development models:

1. Flexible portal engine: You can use the browser based interface to develop your website. This is ideal for webmasters who don’t have any knowledge of programming or coding.

2. Using ASPX page templates: If you are an ASP.NET developer and know the codes required to build a website, you can use the Kentico CMS server controls in Microsoft Visual Studio and build standard web forms. More information is available in this page.

For a full list of features, please refer to the documentation and the complete feature list here

How to Evaluate Kentico CMS

There are three ways to evaluate the Kentico content management system:

Download the trial version, working for 30 days: The trial version lets you test all the details of Kentico CMS on your computer. You also get 10 Free support tickets by email. You can download the Kentico CMS trial here

Download the Free edition of Kentico CMS: The free edition gives you a lifetime use of the CMS, with some minor limitations. You can have only one administrator, one editor and a maximum of 1000 pages in your website. In addition to that, you have to keep the Kentico branding in the footer of your website. You can download the free edition of Kentico here
The advantage of using the free edition is that it never expires and can be used even for commercial purposes.

Try the Virtual lab of Kentico CMS online: The virtual Lab of Kentico lets you try this amazing CMS online, you don’t have to install anything on your computer or in your web server. You will have 4 test websites setup for free and can evaluate all the features of Kentico online.
You can sign up for a free Virtual lab account here

Here is a brief comparison of the various packages that are available with Kentico:

Kentico Package Comparison

What’s new in Kentico CMS ver 5.5

The latest release of Kentico CMS is ver 5.5 and it has several new features worth exploring.

  • The latest version, which can be download from this page supports Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 with .NET 4.0.
  • You can seamlessly integrate Facebook connect and use Open ID in your web application
  • Using web parts, creating RSS feeds is as easy as child’s play
  • New revamped admin interface with improved functionalities e.g pagination support, global admins may be denied access to the site manager and more.
  • Easy integration and support with Third party map services e.g Bing and Yahoo maps
  • Integration with MetaWeblogAPI which lets you create pages and blog posts from blogging editors like Windows Live writer, Microsoft Word etc

Complete list of features can be found in this page. The changelog and bugfixes can be found here.

This review has been guest posted.