6. Landing into the Grand Canyonâ€¦ err, the Gale Crater
The very landing spot is one of the coolest things about the mission. The Gale Crater is a stable formation that is pretty old. The whole region is housed in sedimentary rock and thus, on analyzing the rocks of the Gale Crater, Curiosity can actually go back in time and inspect the history of Mars, much like paleontologists do in the Grand Canyon. We do not know whether there are striations in the Gale Crater, but analyzing old Martian rocks is quite a rush in itself!
7. Quantifying Mineral Content the ChemMin
ChemMin – the name is obviously from Chemistry and Mineralogy and that is exactly what this sophisticated piece of machinery will do. It will take the rock samples, some drilled from underneath the surface, and analyse them using an X-Ray beam. Crystals in the rocks diffract X-Rays in certain ways, and this will be used to identify the structure of the crystals. The structure can then be compared with a database and the exact crystal pinpointed. (Note that this is a standard procedure used for crystal structure analysis, using X-Ray diffraction). The ChemMin will be fed samples by the robotic arm.
8. Burning through rocks in the name of science ChemCam
This Bond-styled instrument is designed to fire an intense laser beam at Martian rocks and vaporize them, while analyzing the vapors for composition. The reach of the ChemCam is about 9 meters and is designed to extend the reach of the rover beyond the physical length of the robotic arm. The remote analysis of vapors will take place by analyzing the spectra of light emitted by the excited particles present in the rock vapors. These will be picked up by high-quality optical fibres and spectrographs will identify the elements in the rocks and even get the relative abundances.
This is somewhat of a role reversal to think of it. We’ve always imagined Martians landing on Earth shooting laser beams from large wheeled machines of theirs, haven’t we?
9. Searching for Water – using Neutrons
One of the main aims of the mission is to see if the surface of Mars is conducive for life or not. The critical necessity may be the presence of water. The presence of water, even underground and mixed with clay, can be detected using the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons or DAN. The ultra-cool device will shoot neutrons at various energies into rock samples and see how they reflect. The energy spectrum of the reflected neutrons, compared to that of the incident neutrons tells us whether there is water or not. Neutrons tend to reflect off (or scatter) from nuclei and this can give us a signature of water or ice.
10. Finally, whether we can settle or not!
The Radiation Assessment Detector, or RAD, will give us information regarding the possibility of us going to Mars on a future manned mission or even a settlement. It measures the radiation in different parts of the Martian surface and identifies areas, having low levels of radiation. This is the first step to identifying future landing spots and also of the possibility of microbial life-forms.
So, there it is! A compilation of 10 things about the Mars rover that we found really cool! The list is not given in any particular order; you’re invited to have your own pick!
We’ve said this before, but we’ll say it again: Good Luck, NASA.