**The Physics Nobel goes to Cosmology Team for their observation of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. This led to the hypothesis of Dark Energy. Names of winners follow.**

Physics Nobel is the most prestigious Nobel, feel many, especially since Alfred Nobel himself mentioned it first in his will. The fascination with Physics Nobel winners of the last century is understandable, given the huge names, which would’ve still been big without the Nobel. For 2011, the forerunners of the Nobel seem to be Alain Aspect (famous for his Aspect Experiment on the EPR effect), John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger.

Quantum Physics has been the dominant buzz word surrounding this year’s prize. The other contenders include Yakir Aharanov (one half of the Aharanov-Bohm effect duo) and Micheal Berry (of Berry Phase fame). The dark horse in the race has been the neutrino team. The Nobel might go to experimental team looking to verify and measure neutrino oscillations. Arnold McDonald at SNOlab along with two Japanese physicists from the Super Kamiokande experiment.

### And the Winner Is …

**The 2011** **Physics Nobel Prize** goes to **Saul Perlmutter (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UC Berkeley), Prof. Brian Schmidt (High Z Supernova search team, Australian National University, Weston Creek, Australia) and Prof. Adam Reiss (High Z Supernova search team, Australian National University, Weston Creek, Australia)**. While Permutter got half the Prize, the other half went jointly to Schmidt and Reiss. The citation reads

*“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”*.

The Universe was supposed to slow down according the General Theory of Relativity. The observation by Schmidt and Reiss confirmed that the Universe is not only expanding, but also accelerating.

A webcast from the Nobel Committee in Sweden is to follow. Here’s the webcast link:

The Chemistry Nobel Prize winner will be announced tomorrow. The prizes will be given out on the 10th of December.

Below is a small animation explaining the 2011 Physics Nobel with narration by Sean Carroll, Caltech Physicist. Enjoy

Wow. Thanks for the information.

Wow. General relativty ,stating that the expansion of the universe is slowing down, defied by the laurates. Special relativity , stating a cosmic speed limit i.e. speed of light, defied at CERN by neutrino’s speed.

Einstein?

The neutrino thing might turn wrong!

Not really. The Nobel Laureates haven’t disproved General Relativity. When you apply General Relativity to the Universe, with zero cosmological coefficient, the model predicts that the Universe is expanding, but at uniform rate, which will slow down with time, if the mass density is positive. Now, the value of the cosmological coefficient is not known. It was universally known to be zero, until this current observation that the Universe is expanding at an accelerated pace. This means that the cosmological coefficient is non-zero. The source of the discrepancy is unknown, and it is postulated that some sort of ‘dark energy’ exists, which contribute to a repulsive force against gravity. General Relativity is good enough to take that into account.

As for the neutrino results, I would say wait and watch. I can bet that the experiment is wrong. It will not be reproduced elsewhere. But, let’s wait and watch for the official announcement on that.

But the article says:

“The Universe was supposed to slow down

according the General Theory of Relativity.”

Doesnt it contradict to your expression?

That was a quick way of saying that General Relativity, without any tweaks, predicts a Universe which slows down.

Iam actually surprised with the way these scientists have explained this theory,how dark energy got formed when the ‘Big Bang’ happened and how it slowly expanded

The 2011 of the Nobel Prize for physics is a mistake

It is surprised to hear that the three U.S. physicists had won the Nobel Prize in physics for discovering through the study of supernovae that the universe is accelerating expansion.

The Hubbleâ€™s redshift and the Doppler Effect are the facts. It doesnâ€™t mean the universe is expansion or universe is accelerating expansion.

The expansion of the universe is based on the true of the Big Bang theory. If the Big Bang theory is not true. Even though the Hubbleâ€™s redshift, and the Doppler Effect is the facts. The expansion or accelerating expansion of the universe is not supported.

The Big Bang theory and â€œdark energyâ€ are not just a crazy idea, it is nonsense. Is anyone believe the â€œdark energyâ€ able to create the real energy to push the supernovae accelerating expansion? If you do believe it. You may believe â€œdark humanâ€ can turn spirit to a real person.

In Scientific community , the Big Bang and â€dark energyâ€ issue had been argue for so many year, And now act rashly to award the Nobel Prize in physics for the universe is accelerating expansion .I believe that someday will be proved the 2011 of the Nobel Prize for physics turn out to be a joke.

The expansion of Universe should not true. If it is true, the Big Bang theory and â€œdark energyâ€ will be true.

Now raise a big question. If he Big Bang theory and â€œdark energyâ€ are not true. Also the Hubble redshift, and the Doppler Effect is the facts, How could be proved the universe is not expansion or not accelerating expansion?

The space of the universe has only three kind of possibility. One is Euclidean space, one is elliptical space and the other is hyperbolic space. These three kinds of space can only be hypnosis to be one of the three only, And, it cannot be identify by proved.

1. If the universe is a Euclidean space, due to the Hubble redshift, and the facts of the Doppler Effect, There must be the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang also true. This is contradiction to the Big Bang is not true. So, the space of the universe may not be a Euclidean space

2. The space of the universe will never be an Elliptical space. If the space of the Universe is an Elliptical space. When we see anything from the east, can be seen from the west too. Obviously, it is not so

3. Remaining space is The Hyperbolic space.

Let analyze, if supernovae happen in Hyperbolic space.

Hubbleâ€™s laws are derived from Euclidean rules and Euclidean formulas. However, assume the Universe is in Hyperbolic space. Very logically, we must derive its rules and formulas from Hyperbolic rules and non-Euclidean formulas.

The rules and formulas of Hyperbolic space are quite different from Euclidean space. Hence, the results derived from utilizing these two systems must be different. These differences may be the keys to unveil the mystery of the Universe.

â€œNow we try to prove, the universe is not expansion or not accelerating expansion. Even though Hubbleâ€™s redshift and the Doppler effect are the factsâ€

A. LIGHT SPHERICAL WAVE FRONTS

When photon travel a distance of r. The equation of a light spherical front in Euclidean space is

x2 + y2 + z2 = r2 ————– (1)

From Hyperbolic geometry, the equation of the light spherical front is

tanh2 x/k + tanh2 y/k + tanh2 z/k = tanh2 r/k —— (2)

Where k is the constant of the space curvature. ï¼ˆcosmological constantï¼‰

(From page 298 of non-Euclidean Geometry by Allen Liou, 1964.)

Comparing equations (1) and (2), we can see very obviously that the area of the light spherical fronts is very much different. Even though they have the same radius. Therefore, the Doppler Effect should not be the same between Euclidean space and Hyperbolic space.

The area of the Light Spherical Front in Euclidean space is 4Ï€r2.

What is the area of the Light Spherical Front in Hyperbolic space?

Let us determine the circumference of a circle in Hyperbolic space first:

Let PQ be the chord of a circle of radius r, which subtends an angleÎ¸, M be the midpoint of the chord, and O be the center of the circle.

See

fig 1.

From the formula of the right-angle in Hyperbolic trigonometry, we have (page 143 of non-Euclidean Geometry by Allen Liou, 1964.)

sinh PQ/2k = sinh r/k sinâˆ POQ/2

If angle Î¸ïƒ 0

We have ds/2k = sinh r/k dÎ¸/2

or ds = k sinh r/k dÎ¸

Integrating both sides, we have

Circumference = 2Ï€k sinh r/k

Then, let ds are the length of the arc of the spherical circle, and r be the radius.

By same formula, we have, see

fig 2.

ds = k sinh r/k dÎ¸

The area of the circle strip is

d (area of circle strip) = 2Ï€k sinh AM/k ds

But

sinh AM/k = sinh r/k sinÎ¸

Therefore

d(area of circle strip)=2Ï€k[sinh r/k sinÎ¸][k sinh r/k dÎ¸]

= 2Ï€k 2 sinh2 r/k dÎ¸

Integrating both sides, we have

area of sphere = 4Ï€k 2 sinh2 r/k

B. DOPPLER EFFECT OR â€œLIOUâ€™S STRETCH EFFECTâ€

When a photon travels a distance r, the area of the Light Spherical Front in Euclidean space is 4Ï€r2.

area of sphere = 4Ï€r 2

But the area of the Light Spherical Front in Hperbolic space is

area of sphere = 4Ï€k 2 sinh2 r/k

Compare the two Spherical Areas in the two different spaces with the same r. We easily to see that, if we are in Hyperbolic universe, Light Spherical Front stretch from 4Ï€r 2 to 4Ï€k 2 sinh2 r/k. We temporary called this stretch by â€œLiouâ€™s stretch effectâ€.

The Spherical Front of photon may only travel a distance r in Hyperbolic space. But in Euclidean space, it appears to travel a distance of k sinh r/k.

From the difference of r and k sinh r/k in Euclidean space, it looks like the object moves from point r to point k sinh r/k, but the object actually stays still in Hyperbolic universe.

When we use Redshift of Doppler Effect in Euclidean space to calculate velocity of galaxy from point r to point k sinh r/k. Actually, there is no movement from point r to point k sinh r/k. It only cause by the stretch of curvature of Hyperbolic space (â€œLiouâ€™s stretch effectâ€).

I will use the velocity to calculate the space constant (cosmological constant). Use redshift of frequency the result is the same.

D. CALCULATION OF SPACE CURVATURE (OR COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT) IN HYPERBOLIC UNIVERSE

Let s = k sinh r/k – r

Where s is the distant of galaxy moving from position r to the position k sinh r/k.

Taking the derivative of both sides, we have

ds/dt = cosh r/k dr/dt – dr/dt

where ds/dt =v (the velocity of galaxies at the remote distance of r), and dr/dt is the speed of light c.

Therefore

v = cosh r/k c â€“ c

v = c[cosh r/k – 1] = 2c sinh2 r/2k ———- (3)

There are several versions of the Hubble’s constant. We will select the one most popular one. In which, the velocity of galaxies at a distance of six billion light-years move away at a velocity of roughly 90,000 kilometers/sec.

Hence v=90,000 kilometers/sec and r=6 bly.

Hence we have

v = 90,000 kilometers/sec and r = 6 bly.

Therefore

90,000 = 2c sinh2ï¼ˆ6bly/2k ï¼‰

âˆ´ 0.3c = 2c sinh2ï¼ˆ3bly/k ï¼‰

âˆ´ k = 3bly/ sinh-1âˆš0.12

âˆ´ k = 7.931965828 bly

Where bly is billion light-years.

C. DISCUSIONS

1. Hubbleâ€™s constant was not constant.

From equation (3), v = 2c sinh2 r/2k , the velocity of galaxies and the remote distance of r were not exactly linear proportions in Euclidean universe. The velocity is more likely in slightly acceleration observed in Euclidean universe.

Here, the cosmological constant, k = 7.931965828 bly was based on the Hubbleâ€™s Law at 6 bly. If we based on a difference distance, like one on a distance of 1 or 2 bly, the k value should be slightly different. If we use different versions of Hubbleâ€™s Law, the cosmological constant k will be even more different. We really need an accurate data to determine the constant k

Assuming k = 7.931965828 bly is correct; the Hubble’s diagram in Euclidean space should look like the following diagram.

From this chart, we should call Hubbleâ€™s accelerator instead of Hubbleâ€™s constant.

2. Is Universeâ€™s redshift cause by DOPPLER EFFECT or â€œLIOUâ€™S STRETCH EFFECTâ€?

In recent year, astronomer’s observed that Hubbleâ€™s constant is not constant. The galaxies actually moving away accelerated, like supernovae.

From this two facts, the Universeâ€™s redshift is more likely to be caused by the â€œLIOUâ€™S STRETCH EFFECTâ€. Therefor Doppler Effect caused by the STRETCH of the Hyperbolic space not by the speed of velocity in Euclidean space. The universe is neither expansion nor accelerating expansion. Even though Hubbleâ€™s redshift and the Doppler Effect are the facts.

In other words, the universe is still in Hyperbolic space. We can forget about Big Bang Theory, dark matter, dark energy, block hole, white hole, etc.

3.Hubbleâ€™s redshift can be proved the Universe is a Hyperbolic space. This is the new way of interpret the Universe. And everything is falling into the right place. If we can prove the sum of the angles of three galaxies are less than two right angles. With this second proved, Universe definitely is a Hyperbolic space.

By the way, if anyone can prove the sum of the angles of three galaxies are less than two right angles. I will award 100000 USD.

What Rubbish!