Do you remember what happened on the 6th June, 1999? Or 19 September 2000? Well, if you can effortlessly reel off the answers, and in general recollect events in your life with remarkable accuracy, you don’t just have good memory—you’d be pleased to know that you have what is called “Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory”.
This is a newly described ability of individuals to recall events from their personal past, including the days and dates of occurrence, with high accuracy. People with strong memories don’t necessarily have HSAM. They use certain mnemonics and strategies to perfect the art of memory, and this often doesn’t extend to autobiographical memories. In a case of one of the most famous mnemonists, the patient described living his life “in a haze”. Conversely, intense rehearsal of memories does not seem to be the primary means by which people with HSAM store their rich repertoire of memories.
How Are they “Highly Superior”?
Researchers at the University of California, Irvine tried to see if this difference between high autobiographical memory and good memory was also reflected in the way these are stored in the brain. They recruited people who claimed to have extremely good autobiographical memories and performed routine memorization tests on them. They identified 11 people who had vastly superior abilities to remember events in their past. However, these people performed no better than normal individuals on these tests. Yet when it came to public or private events that occurred after age 10½, “they were remarkably better at recalling the details of their lives,” said McGaugh, senior author on the new work.
They found that HSAM participants also had obsessive tendencies, though it remains unclear if the two are linked, and if so, how. Furthermore, they found that the brains of these participants were anatomically different from the brains of normal participants in 9 structures. Using MRI, some of these regions are shown to be active while autobiographical memories are being recalled.
Cause or Effect?
It must be noted, however, that these structural differences could either be a cause of HSAM or an effect. Our brains are remarkably plastic and embody the saying ‘we are what we do’. The wiring of our brains is subject to change upon repeated patterns of activity. Thus, the difference in certain brain regions of people with HSAM could simply arise as a result of different thought patterns in these people. Either way, this research does give us more information about the intricate workings of the brain and how it resolves the details of the world we live in.