Fossils Point to Multiple ‘Homo’ Species
By on August 8th, 2012

Fossil Questions if Our Ancestors Had Cousins

There exists a fossil of a human skull, labelled 1470, which has been at the center of quite a bit of controversy since its discovery in 1972. This fossil, said to be from 2 million years ago, was different enough from the existing human ancestor at that period—Homo erectus—for some scientists to propose that it belonged to a new species. And thus were formed two warring camps. One said that 1470 belonged to Homo erectus, and the difference could be accounted for by variation within a species. The other camp believed that 1470 represented a remnant of a new species that might have existed along with Homo erectus, meaning that the lineage of current humans might not be as linear as we think it is.

A timeline in Homo sapiens evolution. Homo rudolfensis is the contested species which might have co-existed with two others.

A timeline in Homo sapiens evolution. Homo rudolfensis is the contested species which might have co-existed with two others. [Image Credit: Nature]


Now, the discovery of three new fossils has strengthened the claims of the second camp. These were discovered by a team led by Meave Leakey (who was also involved in discovering 1470) also near Lake Turkana in Kenya. The new fossils, which are from 1.78 to .95 million years ago, resemble fossil 1470 in skull structure by having similarly large and flat faces. Scientists are saying that the presence of more than a single outlier suggests that 1470 wasn’t just an unusual case in the species Homo erectus, but just one among a number of individuals in an altogether new species, which they are calling Homo rudolfensis. This finding contradicts the belief that our species evolved from the ancestors we share with apes in a strictly linear progression. The authors of this research believe that 3 species existed simultaneously—erectus, 1470 and a third branch— of which erectus eventually evolved to become Homo sapiens.

Not Definitive Evidence

This discovery isn’t convincing the critics, though, who think the evidence is not definite, and that the three fossils could still be diverse members of the same species. For now, our family tree remains murky.

You can unearth more information about this research here and here.

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Author: Shweta Ramdas
Beginning life as a grad student studying human genetics.

Shweta Ramdas has written and can be contacted at shweta@techie-buzz.com.

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